Q) Measures to restrict falling Sex Ratio in India
A) Sex Ratio denotes number of females per 1000 males whereas Child Sex Ratio (CSR) denotes number of female child in the age group 0-6 years per 1000 male child. Both these indicators represent far beyond just simple numbers. They represent the condition of women in a society.
In India CSR has been falling continuously in the past 3 decadal census i.e. from 933 (1991 census) to 927 (2001 census) to 918 (2011 census). The following measures has the potential to check this rapid decline –
1. This problem reflects the attitude of the society towards the girl child. So the mindset of the people needs to be altered. Various awareness campaigns and benefits of having a girl child can bring about a cognitive based attitude change in the people towards the girl child
2. Help can be taken from various influential and successful female personalities in different fields which can share their success story and inspire the people. This will lead to a affection based change in the attitude towards the girl child and female population in general.
3. Rewards and punishments can be set and people can be given incentives such as special packages for the birth of girl child. This will induce a behavior based change in the people’s attitude towards a girl child.
4. Stricter compliance of PCPNDT act can also help in solving the issue to a great extent. By certain loopholes in its implementation people often find out the sex of a foetus and destroy the foetus beforehand if girl child is found to take birth.
Thus declining child sex ratio is a wider social problem and its roots lay in deeply entrenched patriarchal mindset of the society towards a girl child and the attitude needs to be changed if this decline of sex ratio has to be curtailed.
Q) Analyze the implementation of RTE Act in enfranchising Quality and Equality
A) Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 was enacted by the government in pursuance of Art 21A of the constitution. RTE seeks to provide that every child has a right to be provided full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in formal school which satisfies certain minimum standards.
It has been 5-6 years since TRE was enacted. A cursory look at the statistics will reveal that the enrollment ratio of children in primary schools has increased. But a deeper analysis shows us some stark realities which points to certain deficiencies in the implementation of the act. Census 2011 points out that the literacy rates of people aged above 15 among SCs and STs are about 9% and 17.4% less than the national average. The female literacy is 19.5% lower than that of males. These difference further increases to 23% and 23.5% among SCs and STs. These point to double discrimination on account of being female and a Dalit or an Adivasi. The dropout rates are significantly higher among the SCs and STs than the national average. These glaring inequalities become more and more visible in rural areas. RTE has a provision of minimum 25% reservation for children belonging to weaker sections in schools both public as well as private. Various studies and repots have further shown that very few SC and ST students attend private schools as the fee itself is a limiting factor. And if some sections among them do enroll in private schools they drop out because of discrimination both from students as well as management.
It’s high time that Kothari Commissions recommendation regarding common school system (CSS) be followed to make the education more inclusive. Only then can the nation harness the rich demographic dividend which it has and bring about an all round development of the economy.
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